15:05Ревизия муравьёв Pseudonotoncus и Teratomyrmex - эндемиков Австралии
Revision of the Australian endemic ant genera Pseudonotoncus and Teratomyrmex (Hymenoptera Formicidae Formicinae)|
S.O. SHATTUCK (1) & A.J. O’REILLY (2)
1 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com
2 Centre for Tropical Biodiversity & Climate Change, School of Marine & Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811
Zootaxa (2013) 3669 (3): 287–301 (7 Jun. 2013)
Ревизованы Австралийские эндемичные рода муравьёв Pseudonotoncus и Teratomyrmex, обзор их распространения и биологии. Описаны 3 новых для науки вида. Оба рода ограничены в своём распространении лесами восточного побережья Австралии. Род Pseudonotoncus известен по 2 видам, P. eurysikos (new species) и P. hirsutus (= P. turneri, new synonym), а род Teratomyrmex известен по 3 видам, T. greavesi, T. substrictus (new species) и T. tinae (new species). Distribution modelling was used to examine habitat preferences within the Pseudonotoncus species.
Австралия обладает одной из крупнейших и разнообразнейших мирмекофаун мира, в ней более 1400 нативных видов и 100 родов. Из этих 100 родов, 18 эндемики Австралии: Adlerzia, Anisopheidole, Austromorium, Doleromyrma, Epopostruma, Froggattella, Machomyrma, Mesostruma, Myrmecorhynchus, Nebothriomyrmex, Nothomyrmecia, Notostigma, Melophorus, Onychomyrma, Peronomyrmex, Pseudonotoncus, Stigmacros and Teratomyrmex. In the present study we revise two of these endemic genera, Pseudonotoncus and Teratomyrmex.
Род Pseudonotoncus встречается вдоль восточного побережья Австралии от wet tropics in North Queensland to southern Victoria in rainforest and wet and dry sclerophyll forests. Specimens of this genus are uncommon and forage primarily on vegetation and tree trunks, both during the day and at night. The only known nest was found in soil. Nothing more is known of their biology.
Впервые таксон Pseudonotoncus был установлен Clarke (1934) for the single species Pseudonotoncus hirsutus. This species was known from only a single nest found in the Gellibrand Forest on the Otway Peninsula in Victoria. Donisthorpe (1937) described a second species, Pseudonotoncus turneri, from the Tambourine Mountains in Queensland, some 1,500km to the north-east of the type locality of Clark's P. hirsutus. Donisthorpe’s description of P. turneri mirrors that of P. hirsutus in all aspects except colour. Brown (1955) noted that P. hirsutus had considerable variation in colour and, particularly on the propodeum and petiole, in sculpturation. He also speculated that, while P. hirsutus and P. turneri were likely the same species, additional species may emerge with more thorough collecting. Taylor (1992) also recognised that there was no convincing evidence to support P. hirsutus and P. turneri as separate species but mentioned that Clark had labelled one specimen from Woori Yallock, Victoria, with an unpublished species name ("breviceps"). This specimen is currently held in ANIC (Acc. No. 32-010753) and the name was never published
В контраст к Pseudonotoncus, род Teratomyrmex сравнительно редко обнаруживется и пока его ареал ограничен прибрежными регионами штата Квинсленд and extreme north-eastern New South Wales. Its main habitat is high-elevation rainforests and other suitably wet areas. Nests occur within damp rotting timber and workers forage in trees and on the ground around the nests. Very little is known of its biology.
Впервые род Teratomyrmex был описан McAreavey (1957) from specimens collected in 1942 by T. Greaves from the Blackall Range in Queensland. McAreavey gave the genus the name Teratomyrmex after the latin ‘terato’, meaning monster, wonder, or marvel. The genus has been characterised by the distinct wing-like projections on the pronotum which were described by Wheeler and Wheeler (1974) ‘as if it has a huge tumor on the top of its thorax’. However, more recently found species, described here for the first time, have these pronotal projections less well developed, although still present.
ОПРЕДЕЛИТЕЛЬ ВИДОВ Pseudonotoncus Clark, 1934
1. Petiole approximately square in dorsal view (Figs 1D, 3); in lateral view almost as long as high, the anterior face rounding gradually into the domed dorsal face (Fig. 1B). Dorsal surface of petiole with course longitudinal rugae (Fig. 1D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .eurysikos
2. Petiole broader than long in dorsal view (Figs 2D, 3); in lateral view much higher than long, the anterior face separated from the flat dorsal face by a rounded angle (Fig. 2B). Dorsal surface of petiole smooth or with small foveate depressions (Fig. 2D) . . . . . . . . . hirsutus
ОПРЕДЕЛИТЕЛЬ ВИДОВ Teratomyrmex McAreavey, 1957
1. Colour uniform through entire body (Fig. 6B); pronotum with large, wing-like structures on dorsal surface (Fig. 6C); dorsal surface of petiole concave with a pair of small spines dorsolaterally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . greavesi
-. Body darker on head and mesosoma with coxae, trochanters and basal one third of femora white (remainder of femora brown) (Fig. 7B); pronotum lacking large wing-like structures, instead with angular pronotal humeri (Fig. 7C); dorsal surface of peti-
ole flat, with very small projections dorsolaterally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
2. Body with long, erect hairs only, shorter hairs and pubescence absent; dorsum of head, pronotum and mesonotum essentially smooth, sculpturing at most only weakly developed; petiole uniform brown, apex similar in colour to remainder (Fig. 7) . . . . . . . . . substrictus
-. Body with both long, erect hairs and short, flat-lying hairs (short hairs absent from first segment of gaster); dorsum of head,
pronotum and mesonotum with abundant shallow foveae; apex of petiolar node pale yellowish-white, distinctly paler than remainder of petiole (Fig. 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. tinae
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