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Муравьи рода Tetramorium Африки - Tetramorium tortuosum species group
The Tetramorium tortuosum species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) revisited - taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical T. capillosum species complex.

Francisco Hita Garcia, Brian Fisher. 
- Entomology, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA 94118, U.S.A.

ZooKeys (2013). 299: 77–99, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.299.5063

РЕФЕРАТ
Авторы ревизуют муравьёв видовой группы Tetramorium tortuosum species group Афротропического региона, которые включены в собственный отдельный комплекс видов: the Tetramorium capillosum species complex. Переописаны два известных ранее вида Tetramorium capillosum Bolton и Tetramorium tabarum Bolton, и описан один новый для науки вид Tetramorium hecate sp. n. Ареалы всех трёх видов ограничены экваториальными лесами Центральной Африки. Предложен диагноз комплекса видов Tetramorium capillosum species complex, иллюстрированный определитель видового уровня, описания по рабочей касте, карты распространения. Обсуждается биогеография и общемировой состав фауны всей видовой группы Tetramorium tortuosum group.

ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Род Tetramorium Mayr включает около 500 валидных видов муравьёв (Bolton 2012, Hita Garcia and Fisher 2012a, 2012b), это один из наиболее крупных муравьиных родов, распространён достаточно широко, во всех зоогеографических регионах. Однако, нибольшее разнообразие отмечено в Афротропике (220 видов) и и на Мадагаскаре (84 вида) (Bolton 1976, 1979, 1980, 1985, Hita Garcia et al. 2010a, Hita Garcia et al. 2010b, 2010c, Hita Garcia and Fisher 2011, 2012a, 2012b). Большинство оставшихся видов (190) описано из Палеарктики , Ориентальной области и Австралии. В Америке они малочисленны, в Новом Свете известно только 7 нативных видов (Bolton 1977, Marques et al. 2011, Vásquez-Bolaños 2007, Vásquez-Bolaños et al. 2011).

Несмотря на широкое распространение и большое число видов, таксономия рода остаётся на хорошем уровне благодаря ревизионным работам Б. Болтона (1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1985). Of special importance was his treatment of the tribe Tetramoriini (Bolton 1976), in which he recognised the genera Atopula Emery, Macromischoides Wheeler, Tetrogmus Roger, and Xiphomyrmex Forel to be junior synonyms of Tetramorium, as well as the later synonymisation of Triglyphothrix Forel under Tetramorium (Bolton 1985). These studies clearly defined the genus Tetramorium and separated it from the other genera in the tribe. Prior to Bolton’s work, the definitions of the tribe and its constituent genera were relatively vague and changed regularly depending on whether authorities treated the tribe partly or in its entirety (Bolton 1976). However, most modern ant sampling projects in the Afrotropical region (Belshaw and Bolton 1993, 1994, Braet and Taylor 2008, Deblauwe and Dekoninck 2007, Dejean et al. 2000, Fisher 2004, Hita Garcia et al. 2009, Jackson 1984, Robertson 1999, 2002, Watt et al. 2002, Yanoviak et al. 2007, Yeo et al. 2011) have been carried out in the decades after Bolton’s studies. These surveys yielded much new material that resists identification using the keys of Bolton (1976, 1980). Consequently, despite having a good taxonomic foundation, most Afrotropical species groups would benefit from updated taxonomic revisions that incorporate material generated after 1980. Recently, this was done for the relatively species-rich Tetramorium weitzeckeri species group (Hita Garcia et al. 2010b, 2010c), but all other groups still await taxonomic treatments.

Видовая группа Tetramorium tortuosum species group распространена в тропиках и субтропиках всего мира с примерно 50 видами в настоящее время и это одна из наиболее богатых видами группа внутри рода (Bolton 1977, 1979, 1980, Marques et al. 2011, Vásquez-Bolaños 2007, Vásquez-Bolaños et al. 2011). As noted above, the New World has only seven native species all belonging to the Tetramorium tortuosum group (Bolton 1977, Marques et al. 2011, Vásquez-Bolaños 2007, Vásquez-Bolaños et al. 2011). The group is also well-represented in the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions with eight and ten species respectively (Bolton 1977, Sheela and Narendran 1998). Interestingly, the group attains its highest species richness in the Malagasy region, where 22 species are known (Hita Garcia and Fisher 2012b). Despite having the highest diversity of species and species groups within the genus Tetramorium, the Afrotropical region harbours only three Tetramorium tortuosum group species, which seems very low compared to the other regions as already noted by Bolton (1980).

Таксономическое обоснование для выделения видовых групп достаточно хорошо разработано. The species from the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions were revised by Bolton (1977) and his keys still work relatively well, although it is not unlikely that they might have to be updated in future revisions of the regions that incorporate material sampled after 1977. The seven New World species can be identified with the latest key from Vásquez-Bolaños et al. (2011), and Hita Garcia and Fisher (2012b) provide identification keys for the species-rich Malagasy fauna in their recent revision. В данной работе авторы ревизуют афротропический состав группы Tetramorium tortuosum group species и  выделяют новый комплекс видов: the Tetramorium capillosum species complex. We describe the two previously known species, Tetramorium capillosum Bolton and Tetramorium tabarum Bolton, and describe Tetramorium hecate sp. n. as new species. Предложен иллюстрированный определитель видового уровня, описания по рабочей касте, карты распространенияОбсуждается биогеография и общемировой состав фауны всей видовой группы Tetramorium tortuosum group.

НОВЫЙ ВИД

Tetramorium hecate Hita Garcia & Fisher sp. n.

АРЕАЛ: Габон, Камерун.
ОПИСАНИЕ. 
ДИАГНОЗ. Tetramorium hecate отличается от двух других видов своей видовой группы следующими признаками: antennal scapes relatively short (SI 73 - 77); eyes large (OI 27 - 31); petiolar node rectangular nodiform with anterodorsal and posterodorsal margins strongly angulate and situated at about the same height; mandibles unsculptured, smooth, and shining; petiole and postpetiole usually with weak sculpture; body colouration ranging from uniformly brown to head, mesosoma, waist segments yellowish to bright orange contrasting with very dark brown to black gaster.
ПРОМЕРЫ РАБОЧИХ МУРАВЬЁВ. 
(N=12). HL 0.58 - 0.67 (0.63); HW 0.54 - 0.64 (0.60); SL 0.41 - 0.49 (0.45); EL 0.15 - 0.20 (0.17); PH 0.28 - 0.36 (0.33); PW 0.42 - 0.52 (0.47); WL 0.69 - 0.83 (0.77); PSL 0.12 - 0.26 (0.20); PTL 0.20 - 0.26 (0.24); PTH 0.22 - 0.27 (0.25); PTW 0.17 - 0.22 (0.20); PPL 0.19 - 0.22 (0.21); PPH 0.22 - 0.28 (0.25); PPW 0.24 - 0.29 (0.27); CI 93 - 96 (94); SI 73 - 77 (76); OI 27 - 31 (28); DMI 58 - 63 (61); LMI 41 - 44 (42); PSLI 21 - 38 (32); PeNI 39 - 46 (43); LPeI 89 - 100 (94); DPeI 81 - 89 (84); PpNI 55 - 62 (57); LPpI 80 - 91 (86); DPpI 120 - 130 (126); PPI 129 - 142 (135).


ДИСКУССИЯ

Как уже было выше замечено, от двух известных видов новый Tetramorium tabarum может быть легко опознан по нескольким признакам. It differs significantly from Tetramorium capillosum in eye size (OI 27 - 31 vs. OI 24 - 25), propodeal spine length (PSLI 22 - 25 vs. PSLI 31 - 43), and sculpture on mandibles and postpetiole, which is present and conspicuous in Tetramorium capillosum while absent in Tetramorium tabarum. The latter is also much smaller (WL 0.75 - 0.82) and bicoloured with a dark brown to black gaster contrasting with the remaining yellowish to orange body, which contrasts with the larger size (WL 1.02 - 1.19) and the uniformly very dark brown to black colouration of Tetramorium capillosum. Despite being often also bicoloured and within the same morphometric range, Tetramorium hecate is unlikely to be confused with Tetramorium tabarum. The antennal scapes are significantly longer in Tetramorium tabarum (SI 84 - 86) than in Tetramorium hecate (SI 73 - 77). More importantly, the petiolar node of Tetramorium tabarum has relatively rounded anterodorsal and posterodorsal margins with the posterodorsal margin situated higher than the anterodorsal, and the dorsum is convex, whereas in Tetramorium hecate the anterodorsal and posterodorsal margins are sharply defined and at about the same height. The varying development of the antennal scrobes is another difference. Tetramorium hecate possesses very well-developed scrobes with margins all around while the scrobes of Tetramorium tabarum are shallow without clear posterior and ventral margins.


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